Associate eu citizenship Charles Goerens MEP

Dear Madam or Sir,

Let me first thank you for your email expressing your support for my amendment 882 asking for “associate EU citizenship” for citizens whose country withdrew from the European Union.

I am aware that you are numerous to worry about your future and I was actually overwhelmed by your spontaneous and many times very personal reactions that you shared with me in your emails.

Please accept my apologies for not being able to answer each and every email personally, but I want to let you know that me and my staff looked at every single email that was sent to me.

I would like to take the opportunity to explain the idea behind my amendment, which hopefully also gives an answer to the concerns that some of you have raised.

I tabled my amendment to the own-initiative draft report by Guy Verhofstadt entitled “Possible evolutions of and adjustments to the current institutional set-up of the European Union”, which aims at looking at the possibilities to improve the functioning of the European Union by a change of the Treaties. I have to acknowledge that these proposals are set-down in a so-called “own-initiative” report, and thus carry no legal weight at this stage. However, with the Brexit negotiations coming to a term, and given that the withdrawal of the United Kingdom, as one of the larger Member States, and as the largest non-euro-area member, affects the strength and the institutional balance of the Union, the European Union will have to revise its Treaties. This is where Mr. Verhofstadt’s report could serve as a basis for the revision.

In fact, in his report, Mr. Verhofstadt raises the idea of a type of “associate status”, which could be proposed “to those states in the periphery that only want to participate on the sideline, i.e. in some specific Union policies”, underlining that “this status should be accompanied by obligations corresponding to the associated rights”. This new type of “associate status” could thus be one of the possible outcomes of the negotiations about the future relationship between the EU and the UK. My proposed amendment could hence go hand in hand with Mr. Verhofstadt’s proposal and could be seen as a solution satisfying all UK citizens who wish to maintain a close relationship with the EU, whether they live in or outside the UK territory.

Of course, some might argue that the “associate EU citizenship” would grant UK citizens a privilege that EU citizens, who might have to quit their jobs in the UK, do not enjoy. Yet, we have considered this issue and therefore propose that the associate citizens pay an annual membership fee directly into the EU budget as an own resource of the Union, following the reciprocal principle of ‘no taxation without representation’.

Citizens, who, against their will, are being stripped of their European identity, are likely to tumble into situations, which may entail personal tragedies. Some of those concerned might even never have lived in the UK and yet be forced to move to a country that they might only know through visiting their relatives or spending their holidays. Imagine a UK national living abroad for decades but never staying long enough in one country to be eligible for citizenship in this host country. This is actually the case for some, as I have witnessed through your emails. An EU that praises mobility and thus makes it possible for all its citizens to travel throughout the continent without borders should become active when this great achievement is at stake.

Finally yet importantly, I want to point out that I am perfectly aware that all of the above is far easier said than done.

Currently the Treaties specify that European citizenship stems directly from the national citizenship of its Member States. However, it also specifies that citizenship of the Union is additional to and does not replace national citizenship. Creating an individual citizenship to the Union would thus require treaty change, not in the least to specify its rights and duties, but it would not infringe upon national citizenship.

My proposal is first of all a political impulse to push the boundaries, on different levels. In fact, at a first stage, the coming six weeks are going to be decisive when the Committee for Constitutional Affairs is going to vote on the report and my amendment on 21 November and later, in December, when Parliament as a whole will be called to pronounce its opinion at plenary level. In the meantime, I will have to gather the required majority in this house to pass this amendment by convincing my colleagues of the necessity to make a statement.

At a later stage, when it comes to the negotiations on the future relationship between the EU and the UK, my idea could also serve as a means to convince the UK government to accept freedom of movement of people along with the other three freedoms, which the European Single Market seeks to guarantee.

In all the cases mentioned above and in particular in the eventual case of treaty change, political determination will be of utmost importance and I will definitely not content myself by truckling to those who consider my proposal unfeasible. I am determined to bring this idea as far as I possibly can on the European level. Indeed, history proves me right when we look at the achievements, which European citizens enjoy nowadays. Who thought, for instance, that one day, EU citizenship would give every EU citizen the right to vote for and stand as a candidate in municipal and European Parliament elections in whichever EU country the citizen resides, under the same conditions as nationals. This is reality today and yes, it needed a tremendous effort and, above all, the political determination to get this far. Why not exert ourselves for this cause and make the “associate EU citizenship” happen?

P.S. What can YOU do? A great number of UK MEPs have already expressed their support for the “associate EU citizenship”. Make sure that they are going to persuade their colleagues in their respective political groups to back this proposal, too.
Please note that similar initiatives are currently under way. Feel free to support those, too.

Yours,
Charles Goerens

Supporting health and wellbeing

 

I wrote this for the GLA Health Committee.  Looking at it, it does not emphasise enough how to do this – which requires geographically based coops.

Supporting the health and wellbeing of all Londoners

Introduction

 

Thank you for this opportunity to submit some thoughts for your work. There is an extremely hoary and ancient joke that someone asked how to get somewhere. Ah I would not start from here.

 

Karl Popper wrote:

 

“I think that there is only one way to science – or to philosophy, for that matter: to meet a problem, to see its beauty and fall in love with it; to get married to it and to live with it happily, till death do ye part – unless you should meet another and even more fascinating problem or unless, indeed, you should obtain a solution.

 

But even if you do obtain a solution, you may then discover, to your delight, the existence of a whole family of enchanting, though perhaps difficult, problem children, for whose welfare you may work, with a purpose, to the end of your days.”

 

I understand the Renaissance concept of Opera, where people work together closely to resolve the issues they face, from a participatory, equal, just, co-operative, sustainable, mutual and whole system perspective might be a valuable way forward.

 

The Three Domains

 

I understand that there are three domains that need to be taken into account in creating excellent living space:

 

  • Buildings
  • Space between buildings, and
  • Transport networks

 

It is not obvious that the governance and professional structures we have reflect these domains, with “Life between Buildings”1 sometimes being a transport related responsibility, at others planning related, one the remit of TfL, the other of the GLA. Where there are conflicting ways of thinking, these may not be being acknowledged.

 

Holistic Government

 

Demos2 have written:

 

The core problem for government is that it has inherited from the nineteenth century a model of organisation that is structured around functions and services rather than around solving problems.

 

Budgets are divided into separate silos for health, education, law and order and so on.

 

The vertical links between departments and agencies in any one field and professional groups such as the police, teachers, doctors and nurses are strong.

 

The horizontal links are weak or non-existent.

 

I started my career in social work, with the work of Seebohm. The concepts of geographical or area “patches” and community work were critical. GP’s were moving into multi-disciplinary health centres. Key parts of my training were whole systems and gestalt.

 

A jargon term that reflects this way of thinking is “villagisation” which is being used by the London Borough of Waltham Forest.3 This concept can be traced back to for example C Hass Klau,4 with the idea of woonerven and earlier People for Places5, the University of California at Berkeley6, the work of Jane Jacobs7 and others.

 

Currently, the concept of making London a national park is being discussed and I would strongly commend this idea8. Much of the preparatory work has been done, for example with Green Chains9.

 

There are two other vectors I would strongly commend, inclusive and ecological design.

 


Inclusive Design

 

A chain is only as strong as its weakest link.10

 

A core concept of the disability world is the idea of barriers. These may be physical, institutional and attitudinal. The idea of an equality impact assessment is to think through clearly what issues someone might face and what physical, legal and behavioural changes may be appropriate. Thinking carefully about someone over their life cycle and on a day to day basis, and looking carefully at what happens, how and why, and how it may be different is very valuable.

 

My experience is like the curate’s egg. There are parts of the movement and transport systems that are impressive; other parts – especially streets and roads are in a backwater. It is not obvious that all the players have even received the message that “Houston, we have a problem”.

 

Urban Ecological Design:11

 

“This trailblazing book outlines an interdisciplinary “process model” for urban design that has been developed and tested over time. Its goal is not to explain how to design a specific city precinct or public space, but to describe useful steps to approach the transformation of urban spaces. Urban Ecological Design illustrates the different stages in which the process is organized, using theories, techniques, images, and case studies. In essence, it presents a “how-to” method to transform the urban landscape that is thoroughly informed by theory and practice. 

 

The authors note that urban design is viewed as an interface between different disciplines. They describe the field as “peacefully overrun, invaded, and occupied” by city planners, architects, engineers, and landscape architects (with developers and politicians frequently joining in). They suggest that environmental concerns demand the consideration of ecology and sustainability issues in urban design. It is, after all, the urban designer who helps to orchestrate human relationships with other living organisms in the built environment.”

 

“The overall objective of the book is to reinforce the role of the urban designer as an honest broker and promoter of design processes and as an active agent of social creativity in the production of the public realm.”

 

Part of the issue is that a person centred, community centred and lifetime perspective is often missing. The following books describe some of the elements of this, Life between buildings1, Great Neighborhood book12 and Urban Transformation6. Another core vector is defining health.

 

The Declaration of Alma-Ata

 

 

The International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 197813 agreed:

 

“The Conference strongly reaffirms that health, which is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, is a fundamental human right and that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal whose realization requires the action of many other social and economic sectors in addition to the health sector.”

 

I understand most of the pathways and solutions to achieving excellent health, excellent peaceful communities, and high quality human habitats have been worked out and implemented successfully somewhere on this planet.  The issues then are around transference and implementation of solutions.

 

Keri Smith “How to be an explorer of the world”14 is probably a valuable starting point “You have immense powers”.

 

 

Audit and experimentation

 

I understand the starting point for implementation should be audit.  This is a very wide use of this term, and is actually about individuals, families, communities, neighbourhoods, villages, towns, and cities defining and agreeing what to do together, using ecological, economic and equality tools.

 

This immediately causes a structural issue – what to audit, how to audit, how to learn to audit, how to report, how to learn to report.

 

I understand this is an educational function – it is not only academic and theoretical, but hands on, involved, learning, thinking, iterating, experimenting, adapting.  It needs to become a core function and way of working of universities and governmental agencies.

 

Living Labs

 

Dr Kes McCormick has said15:

 

As outlined, it’s been absolutely fascinating watching the rise of the urban agenda. So I became interested in environmental issues in the mid 1990s, and at that point I was studying mostly climatology. Cities with places without environment where nothing environmental happened. 10 years later, people had realized the cities had environments, that they have greenery, biodiversity, produced waste, required clean water, clear air and so on, and suddenly urban environments became important.

 

What I think has happened in the last five years is that cities have become seen as the places where environmental solutions can be found as well. So they’re not just places that produce environmental problems. There are actually places that can enable the development of solutions.

 

The key element of this is the way cities learn to become more sustainable. I think that is the core element of this idea of living labs that really holds some promise. They offer a way for cities to learn how to become more sustainable. And that’s really the main theme of the talk today.

 

The talk is split into two halves. I’m going to start off by just outlining some of the practices, what these urban living labs are, their characteristics so far as we can determine them.

 

Before what, moving on to discuss some of the opportunities and potential for cities to use these things in the future. I’m a geographer by background, so there are going to be a lot of places. That’s kind of the way my brain functions, it looks at what’s going on in one place, looks at what’s going on in another place, and try and figure things out from there.

 

We now accept broadly that we have a problem with climate change, science is done, it’s broadly accepted. We know we’ve got to do something about it. We have some pretty good ideas of where we wanna get to. Sustainability, resilience – these are all worthy goals. The tricky bit is how we get there, and this is really a question of governance. There’s been a profusion of theory about how we might get there: adaptation, transition, classic innovation theory. And each of these has abstract models about how change happens, whether it’s market forces, evolutionary economics, regulatory steering, and so on.

 

But of course, as we know, we haven’t really got there yet. We’ve had a number of things, proven technologies. PV, as Lena says, so much cheaper now. And yet, not exploited anywhere near as much as it could be. Why is that? So people are suddenly turning to experimentation as this kind of missing link. How do we get from these abstract solutions to concrete action?

 

And that’s really where this model of urban living labs I think has gained traction in cities. And they essentially function in terms of this learning loop. The idea that you can stage some kind of real world experiment, whether that’s deploying a new technology, or involving citizens in managing part of a city. Or developing a more collaborative construction model for buildings or designing buildings or public realm, and then the critical part is this experiment is somehow monitored in a rigorous way. So to see what actually works, and that doesn’t just mean in terms of carbon emissions.

 

It also means in terms of social wellbeing, happiness, satisfaction, and then the idea from that is that it provides an evidence base for some form of rigorous learning. How could we do this better next time? How should we do this elsewhere? They tend to be institutionally bounded, so they take place literally in the specific places, they’re usually groupings, partnerships of specific institutions. So they are bound in that sense, and they’re about making material interventions.

 

So this is not just about some abstract “on the internet activity”. They change the city in some way. They change the urbanization process in some way. In some senses they’re very familiar. And I think this is another reason why they’ve become so popular with cities, they fit into a familiar way of doing things. Cities everywhere are having to work in partnership with private industry, with citizens, with universities.

 

Living labs are very much about this, they’re about bringing together all the stakeholders in a specific place to address a specific problem.

 

Future Search

 

Another way of auditing and working out what to do is Future Search16.

 

“Future Search is a PLANNING MEETING that helps people transform their capability for action very quickly. The meeting is task-focused. It brings together 60 to 80 people in one room or hundreds in parallel rooms.

 

Future search brings people from all walks of life into the same conversation – those with resources, expertise, formal authority and need. They meet for 16 hours spread across three days. People tell stories about their past, present and desired future.

 

Through dialogue they discover their common ground. Only then do they make concrete action plans. The meeting design comes from theories and principles tested in many cultures for the past 50 years.

 

It relies on mutual learning among stakeholders as a catalyst for voluntary action and follow-up. People devise new forms of cooperation that continue for months or years.

 

Future searches have been run in every part of the world and sector of society.”

 

Participatory Rural Appraisal17

 

is similar. The aim is to research and adapt these and similar methods for life in and between buildings.

 

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) describes a growing family of approaches and methods to enable local people to share, enhance and analyze their knowledge of life and conditions, to plan and to act. PRA has sources in activist participatory research, agro ecosystem analysis, applied anthropology, field research on farming systems, and rapid rural appraisal (RRA).

 

In RRA information is more elicited and extracted by outsiders; in PRA it is more shared and owned by local people. Participatory methods include mapping and modeling, transect walks, matrix scoring, seasonal calendars, trend and change analysis, well-being and wealth ranking and grouping, and analytical diagramming.

 

PRA applications include natural resources management, agriculture, poverty and social programs, and health and food security. Dominant behavior by outsiders may explain why it has taken until the 1990s for the analytical capabilities of local people to be better recognized and for PRA to emerge, grow and spread.”

 

I have met John Rowan18 and his work is also about this:

 

Sets forth a new paradigm for the philosophy and practice of research in fields of human activity: a collaborative, experimental approach in which inquiry is firmly rooted in subjects’ experience of their lives. Covers the philosophy, methodology, practice and prospects of the new paradigm, showing how to do research with people rather than on people. Synthesizes material from researchers pursuing similar paths in Europe, North America, Africa and India as well as relevant reprints and appreciations of classical material.

 

Charles Leadbetter19 is arguing for similar approaches

 

Learning from the Extremes

 

Published early in 2010 by Cisco, Learning from the Extremes examines how social entrepreneurs around the world are devising new approaches to learning in extreme social circumstances – favelas, slums, informal settlements – when there are few teachers, schools, text books. The radically innovative approaches they develop challenge conventional wisdom about schooling and provide new insights into how the developed world should reform its education systems.

 

For, With, By and To

 

In the spring of 2010 I began work on a project called For, With, By and To, which argues there are only four main ways in which we organise most social activities or address social changes. For solutions are delivered to us. With solutions we devise cooperatively with other. By solutions depend on self-motivation and DIY. To solutions depend on instruction, command and coercion, to get things done. Crudely speaking the 20th century was shaped by the rise of more complex, powerful and sophisticated For and To solutions in virtually every walk of life, at the expense of With and By solutions, cooperation and self help. This dependence on For and To solutions has come at great costs, not least the ability of those delivering to abuse their power. We need to redress this imbalance and develop more effective With and By solutions in virtually every area of life, from learning and health, to ageing and dying, to politics and the environment.

 

Sustainability

 

A comprehensive audit must include sustainability, or as the Germans put it “ecological orientation20”. Friends of the Earth and the PSI define sustainability in the context of four principles.

 

Futurity

 

The effects of any human activity must consider the needs and aspirations of future generations, of your great grandchildren’s great grandchildren. The planetary support systems and a minimum environmental ‘capital’ stock should be maintained.

 

Environment

 

The full and true environmental cost of any human activity should be taken into account.  The precautionary principle should be used.

 

It is very difficult to define sustainability constraints, although work is being undertaken on critical loads and habitats.  It is better to define development paths which will not breach possible constraints.

 

Equity

 

Futurity can be understood as inter-generational equity.  Intra-generational equity, between the first and third worlds, between women and men, between adults and children, the young and the old, the able and disabled people, the poor and the rich, is the third principle of sustainability. The entire planet cannot achieve Western resource consumption levels and these pathways are not sustainable for the long-term future.

 

Participation

 

Participation is a logical result of seriously addressing equity.  Everyone’s views matter. Government becomes responsible for ensuring participatory,co-operative action occurs.  Everyone needs to be enabled to share equally in the processes of decision making and implementation.

 

Audit questions and mapping

 

There are many other examples of audit systems, for example of energy and village needs mapping. These have been used in many areas, and there is no reason why the same principles and types of mapping should not be used in many different ways in London.

 

I believe that for example the state of roads in London have not actually been fully and comprehensively audited and mapped, using the types of questions in these audit processes.

 

There would seem to be an urgent need to bring together and unify these and other audit systems. I understand a lot of work has been done, but it is in silos within separate organisations with different legal relationships.

 

My experience is that the various initiatives like health and wellbeing strategies are still at early stages in terms of understanding individual and community life cycle issues, and I understand the GLA Health Committee has a critically important role here, for example with concepts like ecological public health21 and urban ecological design11.

 

Common mapping and auditing principles need to be defined that fully integrate issues of ecology, health and inclusion and result in detailed and comprehensive asset management plans.

 

Milton Keynes Energy Cost Index

 

“In order to ensure that houses in the Energy Park are indeed energy efficient and the degree of their efficiency could be understood by both technical interests and the public the Development Corporation developed the Energy Cost Index (MKECI).

 

The MKECI enables a house design to be thoroughly and accurately assessed in term of overall energy performance, at the design stage.

 

The MKECI is assessed using a computer model which evaluates all the energy demands for the house under standard occupancy assumptions. The computer programme does not actually predict what energy will be used in the house since this will depend critically upon how it is eventually used; in exactly the same way mpg figures for cars are given for certain driving conditions (such as a constant 56 mph) which are never realised in practice.

 

Nevertheless the test results, in both the house and the unrealistic driving test, are a useful indicator of performance.

 

Hesperian

 

Hesperian22 has produced a sample list of audit questions. “To Help Determine Community Health Needs and at the Same Time Get People Thinking”

 

FELT NEEDS

 

What things in your people’s daily lives (living conditions, ways of doing things, beliefs, etc.) do they feel help them to be healthy?

 

Some questions include:

 

What do people feel to be their major problems, concerns, and needs—not only those related to health, but in general?

 

Do people work together to meet common needs? Do they share or help each other when needs are great?

 

What can be done to make your village a better, healthier place to live? Where might you and your people begin? “

 

Atul Gawande The Checklist Manifesto23

 

Reveals the surprising power of the ordinary checklist now being used in medicine, aviation, the armed services, homeland security, investment banking, skyscraper construction, and businesses of all kinds.

 

The modern world has given us stupendous know-how. Yet avoidable failures continue to plague us in health care, government, the law, the financial industry—in almost every realm of organized activity. And the reason is simple: the volume and complexity of knowledge today has exceeded our ability as individuals to properly deliver it to people—consistently, correctly, safely.

 

We train longer, specialize more, use ever-advancing technologies, and still we fail. Atul Gawande makes a compelling argument that we can do better, using the simplest of methods: the checklist.

 

Much of the groundwork has been done, is it now a matter of formalizing the pathways, the training and implementing seriously?

 

A strategy for the prevention of the effects of a sedentary lifestyle

 

The following is adapted from an essay I wrote for a Coursera course on Global health.

 

Rajna Golubic24 has written:

 

“Lack of physical activity detrimentally increases several risk factors for chronic disease and death, including raised blood levels of lipids, glucose, as well as high blood pressure.

 

Inactive people are more likely to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), osteoporosis and some cancers (breast and bowel), all of which pose major public health problems.

Interestingly, evidence emerges concerning the link between low activity and a greater risk of dementia, depression and impaired physical function in the elderly.

 

Convincing research suggests that sedentary behaviour has harmful health effects independent of physical activity, meaning that high levels of activity don’t cancel out the effects of sitting down for extended periods of time.”

 

The risk factor of sedentary lifestyles is important in my context because I am personally at risk and the Lancet has stated that:

 

“Because much of the world’s population is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue.”25

 

And

 

“Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide.”26

 

The strategy requires defining where it is required and who it is aimed at. I am proposing an almost complete redesign of all aspects of our environments. This will of itself cause huge resistance, but our existing ways of being are only habits, and by experimenting with different environments, appropriate ways may easily become normal.

 

“Physical activity can be pursued in four ‘domains’ of daily life including leisure time, work, transport and at home.”24

 

Arguably, physical activity has become endangered in urban situations and survives primarily in the leisure domain.  A key purpose of my strategy is for activity to be normal across all domains and throughout life.

 

Homo Sapiens is a very mobile probably aquatic primate27, what should all our environments look, smell, hear, taste and feel like? Are there opportunities for swimming, rowing, cycling, walking, running, climbing, play and fun for adults, not only children, everywhere and everywhen?

 

“We are monkeys” 2829

 

“Laughing is probably one of the most important social behaviours we have.”30

 

The main stakeholders are planners, architects, health, government, business, artists, comedians, and people. Volkswagen’s Fun Theory is an example.31

Wherever and whenever someone goes, interesting fun things should happen, people should have choices to climb over or under things, hear echoes, have magical experiences – a fountain in Montlucon France asks you to wet the noses of lions and make a wish!

 

Buses, trains, offices, all should be made fun and exciting. Dancing and celebration would be far more common. 32

 

The urban landscape would also have plenty of opportunities for napping.

 

“Take regular naps. People who nap at least five times a week for half an hour have 35% reduced chance of cardiovascular disease. Stress hormones also decrease when you’re napping.”33

 

The environment would of course use the best examples of inclusive design.

 

This strategy does require a complete redesign of how we work, including asking fundamental questions about ergonomics – are chairs for example actually a major health risk? 34 Should we be squatting?

 

The delivery mechanism for this policy would be contagion, well placed examples allowing others to copy and riff on and develop the ideas.

 

References

 

  1. Life Between Buildings | Island Press. at <http://islandpress.org/book/life-between-buildings&gt;
  2. Perri, 6. Holistic Government. Demos (1997). at <http://www.demos.co.uk/files/holisticgovernment.pdf?1240939425&gt;
  3. Mini-Holland. Waltham Forest Council. (2013).
  4. Hass-Klau, C. An Illustrated Guide to Traffic Calming: Amazon.co.uk: C Hass-Klau: Books. (1990). at <https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B00800P16U/ref=od_aui_detailpages00?ie=UTF8&psc=1&gt;
  5. William H. Whyte – Project for Public Spaces. at <http://www.pps.org/reference/wwhyte/&gt;
  6. Bosselmann, P. Urban transformation : understanding city design and form. (Island Press, 2008).
  7. The Blackwell City Reader – Gary Bridge, Sophie Watson – Google Books. at <https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=P2aC62fqCyQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA273&ots=QH564h9rBu&sig=KHVLW4MOaoKKrrxAR-4Ut6lxpRk#v=onepage&q&f=false&gt;
  8. Greater London National Park City. at <http://www.nationalparkcity.london/&gt;
  9. Chain, G. Green Chain – Tel: 020 8921 5028.
  10. Oecd & Ocde. Improving Transport Accessibility for All. (2006).
  11. Palazzo, D. & Steiner, F. R. Urban ecological design : a process for regenerative places. (Island Press, 2011).
  12. Health, G. B. D. of. Healthy Lives, Healthy People: Our Strategy for Public Health in England. (The Stationery Office, 2010). at <https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=fQf4tRfWPd0C&pgis=1&gt;
  13. WHO. Declaration of Alma-Ata. (1978). at <http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf&gt;
  14. Smith, K. Bio « Keri Smith. at <http://www.kerismith.com/bio&gt;
  15. McCormick, K. Kes McCormick | The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE). at <http://www.iiiee.lu.se/kes-mccormick&gt;
  16. Search, F. Future Search Network. (2015). at <http://www.futuresearch.net/&gt;
  17. Chambers, R. 0305750X(94)E0029-W The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal*. World Dev. 22, 953–969 (1994).
  18. Rowan, J., Heron, J., May, J. & Stevens, R. Festschrift for John Rowan.
  19. Leadbetter, C. For, With, By and To – Charles Leadbeater. (2010). at <http://charlesleadbeater.net/2010/05/for-with-by-and-to/&gt;
  20. Hillman, M. Cities, transport and the health of the citizen | Dr Mayer Hillman. at <https://mayerhillman.com/1992/11/30/cities-transport-and-the-health-of-the-citizen/&gt;
  21. Lang, T. & Rayner, G. Ecological public health: the 21st century’s big idea? An essay by Tim Lang and Geof Rayner. BMJ 345, e5466 (2012).
  22. Hesperian Health Guides | Knowledge for Action – Action for Health. at <http://hesperian.org/&gt;
  23. Gawande, A. The Checklist Manifesto | Atul Gawande. at <http://atulgawande.com/book/the-checklist-manifesto/&gt;
  24. Golubic, R. The Health Threats of a Sedentary Lifestyle | Gates Cambridge Scholars. Huffington Post (2013). at <http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/gates-cambridge-scholars/sedentary-lifestyle-health-threats_b_2939088.html&gt;
  25. The Lancet. Literature and medicine: why do we care? Lancet 385, 90 (2015).
  26. Kohl, H. W. et al. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. Lancet (London, England) 380, 294–305 (2012).
  27. Attenborough, D. BBC Radio 4 – The Waterside Ape, 14/09/2016. at <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07v0hhm&gt;
  28. Al- Khalili, J. & Scott, S. BBC Radio 4 – The Life Scientific, Sophie Scott. at <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03bdpl5&gt;
  29. Konradsen, F. An Introduction to Global Health – University of Copenhagen | Coursera. at <https://www.coursera.org/learn/global-health-introduction&gt;
  30. Scott, S. K., Lavan, N., Chen, S. & McGettigan, C. The social life of laughter. Trends Cogn. Sci. 18, 618–620 (2014).
  31. Piano stairs – TheFunTheory.com – Rolighetsteorin.se – YouTube. at <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw&gt;
  32. Ehrenreich, B. Barbara Ehrenreich – Dancing in the Streets A History of Collective Joy. Holt (2007). at <http://barbaraehrenreich.com/website/dancinginthestreets.htm&gt;
  33. PSC Blue Zones. at <http://www.bibalex.org/psc/en/home/sciplanetdetails.aspx?id=105&gt;
  34. Bakrania, K. Research suggests exercise counteracts sitting time — University of Leicester. (2016). at <http://www2.le.ac.uk/news/blog/2016-archive/april/research-suggests-exercise-counteracts-sitting-time&gt;

 

Urban Living Laboratories

https://www.coursera.org/learn/gte-sustainable-cities

Thank you for this fascinating talk to

Kes McCormick
B.A.(Hons) / M.Env.Sci. / Ph.D. / Docent

Associate Professor and Assistant Head
International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)
Lund University, Sweden

Thank you so much Kes, thank you Lena, thank you for the invitation to present today. As ever it’s an honor to be at the institute. And have the opportunity to speak to such a diverse and knowledgeable audience.

As outlined, it’s been absolutely fascinating watching the rise of the urban agenda. So I became interested in environmental issues in the mid 1990s, and at that point I was studying mostly climatology. Cities with places without environment where nothing environmental happened. 10 years later, people had realized the cities had environments, that they have greenery, biodiversity, produced waste, required clean water, clear air and so on, and suddenly urban environments became important.

What I think has happened in the last five years is that cities have become seen as the places where environmental solutions can be found as well. So they’re not just places that produce environmental problems. There are actually places that can enable the development of solutions.

The key element of this is the way cities learn to become more sustainable. I think that is the core element of this idea of living labs that really holds some promise. They offer a way for cities to learn how to become more sustainable. And that’s really the main theme of the talk today.

The talk is split into two halves. I’m going to start off by just outlining some of the practices, what these urban living labs are, their characteristics so far as we can determine them.
Before what, moving on to discuss some of the opportunities and potential for cities to use these things in the future. I’m a geographer by background, so there are going to be a lot of places. That’s kind of the way my brain functions, it looks at what’s going on in one place, looks at what’s going on in another place, and try and figure things out from there.

We now accept broadly that we have a problem with climate change, science is done, it’s broadly accepted. We know we’ve got to do something about it. We have some pretty good ideas of where we wanna get to. Sustainability, resilience – these are all worthy goals. The tricky bit is how we get there, and this is really a question of governance. There’s been a profusion of theory about how we might get there: adaptation, transition, classic innovation theory. And each of these has abstract models about how change happens, whether it’s market forces, evolutionary economics, regulatory steering, and so on.

But of course, as we know, we haven’t really got there yet. We’ve had a number of things, proven technologies. PV, as Lena says, so much cheaper now. And yet, not exploited anywhere near as much as it could be. Why is that? So people are suddenly turning to experimentation as this kind of missing link. How do we get from these abstract solutions to concrete action?

And that’s really where this model of urban living labs I think has gained traction in cities. And they essentially function in terms of this learning loop. The idea that you can stage some kind of real world experiment, whether that’s deploying a new technology, or involving citizens in managing part of a city. Or developing a more collaborative construction model for buildings or designing buildings or public realm, and then the critical part is this experiment is somehow monitored in a rigorous way. So to see what actually works, and that doesn’t just mean in terms of carbon emissions.

It also means in terms of social wellbeing, happiness, satisfaction, and then the idea from that is that it provides an evidence base for some form of rigorous learning. How could we do this better next time? How should we do this elsewhere? They tend to be institutionally bounded, so they take place literally in the specific places, they’re usually groupings, partnerships of specific institutions. So they are bound in that sense, and they’re about making making material interventions.

So this is not just about some abstract “on the internet activity”. They change the city in some way. They change the urbanization process in some way. In some senses they’re very familiar. And I think this is another reason why they’ve become so popular with cities, they fit into a familiar way of doing things. Cities everywhere are having to work in partnership with private industry, with citizens, with universities.

Living labs are very much about this, they’re about bringing together all the stakeholders in a specific place to address a specific problem. A project we tried to do in Manchester around cycling, where we attempted to put a living lab methodology in to practice and consult all the stakeholders in the city around cycling. Identified all of the organizations: public, private, university, NGOs. Plus engaged in the cycling community in Manchester. We had 900 responses to a survey that we made and we were trying really to… Manchester wanted to increase cycling, it had 20 million pounds to spend, it didn’t know what to do. When we talked to them, we found out they really didn’t know what to do. We asked them about previous infrastructure they put in and whether it worked, they didn’t know, they’d never surveyed anyone. We asked them about where people actually cycle in the city to try and find out where you might target investment, they didn’t know that either.

And it was very interesting discovering the evidence gap if you like, the knowledge gap that was preventing any real learning. Or anyway in which to set the urban environment up as a platform to learn what works going forward. A little attempt we made in Manchester, but these things are popping up everywhere. They’re certainly being positioned as the way in which to achieve smart/sustainable cities.

So the latest European Commission calls around smart city funding, sustainable city funding, coming up next year, specify that cities have to use living labs. They have to have living labs in which to do their actions, whatever their demonstration actions are, so they’re kinda becoming hard wired. Into this new form of innovative urbanism if you like, but at the same time they’re being driven in some ways by communities. So often citizens establish living lifestyle initiatives.

A good example at the moment is the Cyclehack. An initiative which brings together interested cyclists in a city, tries to bring together all data and form solutions – often technology based but not always – but to very much user driven problems. They’re also being pushed from the top down by ICT corporate actors, who also quite comfortable with this idea of real world experimentation, which essentially reflects the kind of R&D process whereby you’re trialling a technology and getting the uses to feed back on what works and what doesn’t.

So intriguingly the methodology is quite comfortable for corporations to work with as well. So you’ve got a whole variety of urban living labs, as this survey from John Silver and Simon Marvin shows, addressing different areas, working with different people, driven by different actors. But they share this commitment to trying something in the real world, learning from it in some way.

Some key questions that have really emerged from research so far, they’re predicated on this I guess it was participatory design logic, that if you just involve everyone in the design process, then somehow the outcome will be fine. If we design the collaborative process correctly, it’s the kind of an extension of the communicative ideal of Habermas into a kind of urban intervention. But of course there is no escaping politics here. There is always a choice over who is actually included at what level, at what stage. And that choice is important in terms of determining or influencing what these things produce, what they achieve.

There’s also more fundamental question around whether they work. So they’ve become so prevalent so quickly, based certainly in the area of cities, on extremely little evidence, whether they stimulate even standard things like economic growth, let alone some of these more ambitious goals around transitioned sustainability. A question that the research we’ve been doing here has started to raise is are these things durable over time?

You stage these experiments, they may work or not. The whole logic is based on a continual cycle of learning… how is that founded? Does that require some kind of actual transformation of urban governance, like main stream urban governance, and if we are going to start doing this kind of thing, what can we stop doing?

So there are some more fundamental questions about how cities are managed and run here. And finally, how are they coordinated? This picture here indicates an artists impression of Masdar City in the United Arab Emirates. Suffice to say it doesn’t look like this yet. But some research from my colleague Federico Cugarillo – he calls this a Frankenstein city because it’s comprised of a series of clean-tech experiments all being run by single companies who are invited here with tax breaks, and they’re not joined up in any way.

When we think about sustainability, smart cities as Lena suggested the system’s approach of thinking through the integrated systems is absolutely fundamental. So there’s also this potential disjuncture between these discreet project based experiments, and the ideal that we’re moving towards of an integrated, coherent urban system.

So I just want to end by pointing out three key opportunities in this field going forward.

The first thing is getting back to the promise of urban living labs. There’s plenty of examples where they haven’t really engaged people properly, they’ve been technologically driven, but what is their promise? Ulrich Beck was a German sociologist writing in the 80s and 90s.

And he came up with an analysis of environmental problems like climate change, acid rain and so on, and he talked about them as unintended consequences of modernity.

So modern development, industry, science – all very rational and created progress, but created these huge risks, and he was suggesting that if we’re going to actually cope with some of these problems, we need a reflexive mode of modernity.

A mode of modern development that actually was capable of learning as it went, of incorporating political value, of incorporating social intelligence. And the quote which really caught my eye was this one: “We need institutions that can reconcile the science of data with the science of experience”, and this is really the promise of urban living labs: doing things in the real world, you get in there with the kind of monitoring, technological data, that big data stream, but then you get people in who actually use it, live with it, experience it, and try and shape solutions out of reconciling them.

So that’s the promise, obviously, getting there is a different matter. Certainly one thing that is exciting is urban living labs, and the profusion of funding for this mode of doing cities is creating platforms for new partnership.

Talking to someone in Manchester who’s the CEO of the smart district there about the innovation of actually working more closely with not just corporations like Siemens, but resident groups and so on.

Which is often seen as just work, hard work like this is a barrier. We have to do all this before we can actually fix the city, but we were trying to suggest that actually that mode of working is the innovation in itself. Trying to work with new ways, more closely with partners, and develop solutions together.

So there’s something interesting happening around, whether this constitutes a new mode urbanism, a kind of experimental urbanism if you like, rather than just urban experiments.

There’s a greater role for universities here, going back to that cycling lab project we did a few years ago, there was a need From the stake holders, the evidence. Evidence that can be provided by research, often student led research. There was also an opportunity to take the co-production ethic to a different level though and actually co-produce the research questions. So, the people we consulted, we asked them, we said, if you were given 20,000 pounds to research cycling in Manchester, what would you research?

And we got some great suggestions, but intriguingly, we also got some suggestions that were the same. The police were investigated in the same thing as the cycling pressure group who were interested in the same things as the actual cyclists. Now that sounds like something that actually needs to be, that’s a valid knowledge need, right? When everyone needs it.

So it was fascinating from that point of view. Trying to bring the university resource, all this capacity, students, staff, master students. To bear in a more strategic way.

So I think there’s an opportunity for universities there. I think the real opportunity, the million dollar question, is around whether these experiments in urban living labs can drive some greater urban transformation.

So as I kind of suggested on the way through, we’ve had individual experiments We’ve had demonstration projects in the cities for decades now. They have often worked and yet cities aren’t sustainable still. So there’s a question of: “Okay you’ve done experiments, but so what?”

So the real game at the moment is how to upscale, replicate, roll out, decarbonize, transition pick your verb, but they all relate to how to move from the specific to something more general. And that’s really where the urban living lab methodology holds some kind of promise for cities. Because it offers a way to generate some robust learning to allow cities to do that.

So just to conclude, in terms of the practices I think it’s clear that urban living labs are enabling places, very much places, to host new styles of experimentation. They provide platforms for collaboration, and enable cities to secure funding that they wouldn’t otherwise be able to get.

There’s a huge opportunity for cities to involve citizens in urban innovation, and that’s really the critical thing here. There’s an opportunity for us in universities to play a greater role here. I think there is also an opportunity for cities to drive transformation from the ground up and this is very much the place, the actual place of cities. I have a great quote from a policy maker for years who talked about wanting to create learning landscape, a landscape that you could learn through. A landscape that was experimented with that showed the results of its experiment.

So for me, there’s a really exciting, broader question about how we move towards a more innovative form of urbanism. Thank you.

The Design Manual for Bicycle Traffic

The Design Manual for Bicycle traffic, published by CROW, states:

2.4 The bicycle and sustainable safety

A sustainable safe road network is based on the following principles:

  • Functionality of roads: monofunctionality of roads in a hierarchically structured road network
  • Homogeneity of mass and/or direction and speed: equality in speed, direction and mass at moderate to high speeds.
  • Willingness to forgive of the surroundings and road users among themselves: limitation of injury due to a willingness to forgive of the surroundings and road users anticipation of the      behaviour of others.
  • Recognisability of the design of the road and predictability of how the road continues and the behaviour of road users: surroundings and the behaviour of other road users who satisfy the expectations of road users by means of consistency and continuity of the road design
  • Status acknowledgement by the traffic participant: the ability to estimate task proficiency

There is now general agreement on dividing the road network into three categories for motorised traffic, namely:

  • Distributor roads

These are designed to ensure a continuous, uninterrupted flow of traffic at a relatively high speed.

This means that the road has separate directions of flow, there is no crossing traffic and a relatively homogenous group of road users.

Cyclists are not permitted on distributor roads, they cross them by means of overpasses or tunnels.

  • District access roads

These roads are used for flow and exchange.

However, these functions are separated spatially: the flow takes place on the road sections, the exchange on the intersections.

On road sections, as much as possible is done to meet the requirements of a distributor road: separate directions of flow, there is no crossing traffic and a relative homogenous group of road users.

At the exchange points (intersections and crossings) speed should be low enough to avoid serious conflicts.

  • Estate access roads

These roads are intended to provide access to housing estates, which means that all groups of road users must be able to use them. It must be possible to make manoeuvres such as parking, getting in and out, turning and crossing safely, so the speed of motorised traffic must be kept low.”

 

 

What is interesting about this thinking, which has been used in Britain for example in New Towns like Stevenage, is that shopping and town centres become the equivalent of Estate Access Roads.

This thinking does use “shared space” but with an interesting twist – motorised transport are guests.

The thinking that is used for motorways and major dual carriageways has been extended to use similar rules for pedestrians and cyclists.

 

I understand one of the core issues to be around the evolution of law and practice. I understand there are at least six main areas of law involved:

  • Road and traffic
  • Equality
  • Health and Safety
  • Public nuisance etc
  • Tort of nuisance etc
  • Criminal law of harassment, assault, manslaughter and murder

 

A fascinating example is that road agencies collect statistics about “killed and seriously injured”, but health and safety, aircraft, rail, hospitals, forensics and many other areas want to know about everything, including near misses and people not doing things.

Roads would seem to be following out dated and dangerously misleading practices, I diagnose where that happens as a symptom of institutionalisation.

Recommendations

I wish to see detailed audits that include looking in detail and carefully thinking about all the legal, practice and design assumptions that are being used in proposals.

 

 

 

 

Cycling and the NHS

Following is from a recent email correspondence with the NHS Sustainability Unit. Apologies, needs to be read in date order!

 

Hi Clive,

I apologise that you feel this way – as you can imagine it is an exceptionally broad agenda and as a very small team of 5 we are doing our very best to cover as much of the sustainability agenda for the health and care system as possible. Suggestions such as yours are always helpful and are taken into consideration when we plan our programme of work. We are working with local authorities via health and wellbeing boards – you might like to look at our Toolkit recently developed for this purpose, which has a section on active travel: http://www.sduhealth.org.uk/areas-of-focus/community-resilience/health-and-wellbeing-board-toolkit.aspx

Best wishes,

Shelley

From: Clive Durdle [mailto:clivedurdle@me.com]
Sent: 29 October 2015 14:08
To: sdu England (NHS ENGLAND)
Subject: Re: Cycling and the NHS

Thanks for your response. I hope you do more than “could”.

I understand this conversation has highlighted a serious fault in nhs and phe’s responses to sustainability, possibly due to the various organisations and others like local authority planning and highways and the dot not really grasping the step changes that are needed throughout the various systems.

I understand you are in a critical position to lead change and understand this subject to be a critical part of your business plan.

I must conclude by noting that your team do not seam to have a good enough understanding of sustainable development and what is possible.

I was not expecting the sorts of replies I have got.

Sent from my iPhone

On 29 Oct 2015, at 03:35, “sdu England (NHS ENGLAND)” <england.sdu@nhs.net> wrote:

Hi Clive,

Our work programme is currently focussed around implementation of the sustainable development strategy – and our work tends to be set by the priorities of our two host organisations – NHS England and PHE. We are currently developing next year’s business plan so we could take this into consideration, thank you.

Best wishes,

Shelley

From: Clive Durdle [mailto:clivedurdle@me.com]
Sent: 29 October 2015 02:42
To: sdu England (NHS ENGLAND)
Subject: Re: Cycling and the NHS

I am also very surprised at your response considering what this states:

Pedalling your way to better health

Thanks

Sent from my iPad

On 28 Oct 2015, at 13:27, Clive Durdle <clivedurdle@mac.com> wrote:

Do you not have a discussion fora?

Sent from my iPhone

On 28 Oct 2015, at 03:53, “sdu England (NHS ENGLAND)” <england.sdu@nhs.net> wrote:

Thank you Clive – unfortunately as we are a very small team and this is not currently in our programme of work it is not something that we would be able to do currently – however it is an excellent suggestion for future work.

Best wishes,

Shelley

From: Clive Durdle [mailto:clivedurdle@mac.com]
Sent: 14 October 2015 17:49
To: sdu England (NHS ENGLAND)
Subject: Re: Cycling and the NHS

Thanks would it be possible for your team to start a discussion about this, and contributors would then be able to begin the process of collating evidence based interventions?

Sent from my iPad

On 14 Oct 2015, at 14:35, sdu England (NHS ENGLAND) <england.sdu@nhs.net> wrote:

Dear Clive,

Thank you for your email. As far as we are aware there is currently no NHS-wide strategy on cycling, however there is plenty of activity around encouraging staff and patients to cycle to and from hospitals/NHS buildings. I would suggest firstly looking at our case studies page which has a few examples with this, along with contact details of people within the organisations if you would like to discuss how they implemented their plans further (http://www.sduhealth.org.uk/resources/case-studies.aspx).

As cycling integrates a broad range of issues perhaps your local health and wellbeing board would be a good point of contact?

Best wishes,

Shelley

First health sector-wide report on preparations for climate change available at http://www.sduhealth.org.uk/ARP

Shelley Hugill
Business Support and Project Manager
Sustainable Development Unit (SDU)

T: 0113 8253220
E: shelley.hugill@nhs.net
W: http://www.sduhealth.org.uk
Follow us on Twitter @sduhealth

Victoria House, Capital Park, Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB21 5XB

The Sustainable Development Unit works across NHS England and Public Health England.
High quality health and care for all, now and for future generations

Please think whether you need to print this email

From: Clive Durdle [mailto:clivedurdle@mac.com]
Sent: 08 October 2015 15:38
To: sdu England (NHS ENGLAND)
Subject: Cycling and the NHS

Is there an NHS strategy about this? Is anyone trying to implement anything?

I suggest Stevenage would be a very interesting place to develop models and policies, not just for personal transport but for the last mile issue as it does have a reasonable cycling infrastructure, although badly underused and in need of upgrading, and allowing integration of public health, transport logistics, accessibility and sustainability matters with health issues.

http://www.ecf.com/wp-content/uploads/Declaration-of-Luxembourg-on-Cycling-as-a-climate-friendly-Transport-Mode.pdf

Redbridge Budget Consultation

I am not clear what is happening in Redbridge, but I must ask if the officers and councillors actually have any professional competence.  For example, we seem to have proposed budget cuts in both school and disability transport, but the various officers have not written a jointly researched and argued proposal with detailed equality audit.

It makes me wonder if the council is aware of ideas like holistic government, whole system thinking, institutionalisation and silos.

When a business is faced by the extremely significant challenges LB Redbridge is facing it is often wise to look carefully at what is happening elsewhere and ask if some of those ideas may be of value.

I understand a budget is intended to implement a business plan and to provide a check of an organisation’s direction of travel. It is a consequence of a well thought out strategy.

Many of these suggestions cannot be implemented quickly but by starting in these directions of travel, the supertanker can be turned.

Service redesign

Other Boroughs and authorities in London and elsewhere are merging, sharing services and other permutations.

Services are being merged, for example Adult and Children’s Social Services.

Around the world, complete redesign of health and social services on community health worker and related models is occurring. Bill Gates is a very strong supporter of these models that actually do work anywhere, not just the developing world.

There are many similar ideas.

Actual Economic costs

It is not obvious that all services have been properly economically costed for and being charged for. Various surveys from around the world are showing for example the serious waste of land that occurs with poor use of space for car parking. This is land that can be developed for housing and business at far higher densities. This is happening In Redbridge with Crossrail, but it is not obvious that these changes are being integrated into Redbridge’s strategic and financial planning.

There are two core vectors to this – sustainability and inclusion. The term triple bottom line accounting is one of the ways to express this, but following the Paris Climate Change agreement, how does the proposed Budget assist Redbridge for example with moving to minimising the burning of fossil fuels?

Next to this, have all possible sources of income to help meet the needs of our local commonwealth actually been explored?