Social Exclusion


Is about multiple, tangled webs of problems that are persistent; there may be beliefs that it is permanent. Ways out of this morass include:

  • Dealing with real problems
  • Tackle problems that cross-organizational boundaries that fall between the cracks
  • Give power to local people – ask them to be catalysts for change.  They will need support, training and encouragement.
  • Let people who implement things be a bit strange
  • Involve local people from the start – change from doing to to doing with


Social Capital


Social capital consists of the networks, norms, relationships, values and informal sanctions that shape the quantity and co-operative quality of a society’s social interactions.

There are three main types of social capital:

  • Bonding social capital (e.g. among family members or ethnic groups)
  • Bridging social capital (e.g. across ethnic groups)
  • Linking social capital (e.g. between different social classes)

Social capital can be measured using a range of indicators but the most commonly used measure is trust in other people;



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